Achievers Journal of Scientific Research <p>The Achievers Journal of Scientific Research (AJSR)) was established to publish and promote scientific research on topics of relevance in the natural and applied sciences particularly to highlight research work by academic staff and students of Achievers University, Papers are welcome from all other sources worldwide. AJSR considers all manuscripts are products of original research that have not been published or under consideration for publication elsewhere.</p> en-US Achievers Journal of Scientific Research 2805-3397 Artificial Intelligence Impact in Revolutionizing the Nigerian Banking Industry: An Assessment of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Abuja <p>This study assessed the impact of artificial intelligence on the performance of selected deposit money banks in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was adopted by the researcher through the use of a structured questionnaire designed for this purpose. The study population comprises the employees of five (5) selected deposit money banks within the FCT metropolis in Abuja, Nigeria, which totaled 135 employees. The study adopted the use of census since the population was relatively minimal. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version, 22) was used to run the results of the multiple regression analysis to achieve the objectives of this study. Findings from this study showed that the adoption of Artificial Intelligence positively and significantly enhances efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity, improves customer satisfaction, and enhances the overall performance of the selected deposit money banks in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. Hence, the study concluded that deposit money banks have the potential to bring significant benefits to their firms and customers by leveraging (AI) to improve customer experience, better understand customer needs, enhance competitiveness, and manage risk. The study recommended appropriate digital education for customers and employees of the selected deposit money banks in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria to enjoy some of the gains brought about by the use of Artificial Intelligence to enhance competitive advantage and outperform their competitors.</p> EO Okoliko AO Ayetigbo IJ Ifegwu NU Chidiebere Copyright (c) 2023 EO Okoliko, AO Ayetigbo, IJ Ifegwu, NU Chidiebere 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 120 131 Geo-electric Ground Earthing Investigation in Basement Complex Environment <p>The ground earthing investigation was carried out in the vicinity electrical transformer within the Iyana-emirin community, Ado Ekiti to understand the causes of incessant facility damage due to thunder strike and eventual explosion. Profiling measurement using the dipole-dipole electrode configuration was employed for three traverses around the facility while eight points along these traverses were sounded. The sounding data identified four lithologic layers (lateritic topsoil, clay, sandy clay, weathered layer, and basement) in the study area. 2D resistivity images were generated along four traverses with respect to depth. Results from the VES and 2D resistivity image indicated that the layer within the earthing medium is resistive. The study reveals that the facility damage experienced in the area is due to the high resistivity values across the study area getting above the recommended earthing standard (2 - 5 ꭥm)/(5 – 25 ꭥm) for substation installation. There is a need to carry out artificial enhancement by introducing conductive materials (like lime, salt, charcoal, and ashes) into the subsurface to reduce the resistivity thereby making it suitable for the intended purpose. Also, the identified low resistivity portion could be targeted for burying earthing/grounding material and further enhanced for better performance.</p> TE Oni AO Falade ST Akomolafe Copyright (c) 2024 TE Oni, AO Falade, ST Akomolafe 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 241 250 Characterization of Partially Purified Polyphenol Oxidase from Rhizome of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) <p>Turmeric, a common spice with nutritional and nutraceutical applications undergoes brown reactions during harvest or post-harvest operations. This could possibly be due to presence of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the plant. In this work, isolation, partial purification and some characterization of PPO from rhizome of turmeric were described. The crude enzyme was purified using aqueous two phase partitioning. The partially purified PPO from turmeric was thereafter characterized. Aqueous two phase partitioning gave percentage yield and a final purification fold of 41% and 4.0 respectively. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified enzyme were 9.0 and 50 <sup>o</sup>C respectively. The enzyme was activated in the presence of some water-miscible organic solvents (DMSO&gt;acetone&gt;methanol). In contrast, the enzyme was inactivated in the presence of chloroform, butanol, petroleum ether and ethanol. In conclusion, the enzyme may find uses in several industrial and biotechnological applications.</p> OS Ilesanmi VA Olagunju AB Kayode Copyright (c) 2024 OS Ilesanmi, VA Olagunju, AB Kayode 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 231 240 Studies on the Physicochemical Properties of Amylases Obtained from Digitaria Exilis (White Fonio, Acha) and Digitaria Iburua (Black Fonio, Iburu) Under Optimized Conditions <p>The need for indigenous cereals as a substitute to popular ones such as barley and wheat has necessitated the search for unpopular cereals like fonio. This study investigated the most appropriate conditions for the induction of amylases from acha and iburu using response surface methodology in water which is of traditional practice and water containing phosphate salts (10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH6.5). Malted grains as a function of days of germination produced the highest amylolytic activities on second day of germination with 24337 U/mgprotein when steeped in water and 15794 U/mgprotein for iburu steeped in water containing phosphate salt. However, white fonio produced lesser amount of amylases when steeped in water with 17948 U/mgprotein and 12046 U/mgprotein in water containing salt. These were purified using Concanavalin A Sepharose and were further purified on Bio-gel P100 gel filtration technique for a pure homogenate. The physicochemical properties of these homogenates were studied and white fonio was optimum at pH 6.0 while black fonio was pH 6.5. Similarly, both were stable to temperature at above 65<sup>o</sup>C. CaCl<sub>2</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O and MnCl<sub>2</sub>.4H<sub>2</sub>O activated activities of amylases from two grains but NaCl and KCl led to a reduction in activities while CuSO<sub>4</sub> and MnCl<sub>2</sub> absolutely inactivated activities of these enzymes. Physicochemical properties of these amylases are similar to that obtained from other grains, hence fonio can be used to totally replace amylases from other grains and as such promote the utilization of these local grains and as such improve the economy of our nation Nigeria.</p> OA Adefila OV Ekundare Copyright (c) 2024 OA Adefila, OV Ekundare 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 220 230 Blockchain Technology: A Smart System Framework Towards Providing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patients in Nigeria, the Required Confidentiality <p>Stigmatization in Nigeria has been for a long time. Over the years, patients living with HIV are often stigmatized and tend not to attend to their health condition due to the fear of further stigmatization. Every citizen living with ailment deserves to be treated as humans and do not have to go through the horrible face of being judged and secluded unnecessarily. Patient confidentiality is an integral part of the medical code of conduct and should be emphasized more due to the prevailing challenges caused by the existing medical system, hence the need for Blockchain technology. This research proposes a Blockchain technology, that will provide, anonymity, confidentiality of information’s, high level security of HIV patient records and would prevent any form of tamperproof by health personnel.</p> VA Olutayo AS Obamehinti Copyright (c) 2024 Copyright will be assigned automatically to VA Olutayo, AS Obamehinti when this is published. 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 211 219 Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles from Scent Leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) and Evaluation of its Antioxidant and Photocatalytic Activities <p>Green synthesis of nanoparticles for several applications has gained attention in the field of science because of its cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness. In this work, we synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) from scent leaf, characterized the synthesized nanoparticles and established its antioxidant and photocatalytic activities. The biosynthesized <em>O. gratissimum</em> zinc oxide nanoparticles (<em>Og</em>ZnO NPs) were analyzed. Thermal gravimetric analysis transition shows a loss of 12.65% up to 650°C, indicating that the <em>Og</em>ZnO NPs is thermally stable after 650°C. The patterns indicated crystalline orthogonal shape with a particle size of 15.5 nm. The Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy of the synthesized <em>Og</em>ZnO NPs revealed different bands. The peak in the region of 650 cm<sup>−1</sup> is assigned to Zn-O stretching vibration confirming formation of ZnO NPs. scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive x-ray images and spectra revealed triangular crystalline shapes and presence of carbon and oxygen respectively. The percentage elemental compositions of the synthesized nanoparticles were 17.86%, 21.75%, 58.28%, 0.62% and 0.48% for carbon, oxygen, zinc, silver and nitrogen respectively<strong>. </strong>Strong absorption bands of the biosynthesized samples observed from UV-visible spectra at 350–400nm was characteristic band of ZnO nanoparticles. Free radical scavenging activity of the synthesized <em>Og</em>ZnO NPs revealed that it possesses high antioxidant property in a concentration dependent manner. The photocatalytic activity of <em>Og</em>ZnO NPs had absorbance degradation at 600 nm for methylene blue dye discoloration after 1 h, with a degradation maximum of 85%. In conclusion, the synthesized <em>Og</em>ZnO NPs could be used in several pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications.</p> OS Ilesanmi OF Elijah AB Kayode Copyright (c) 2024 OS Ilesanmi, OF Elijah, AB Kayode 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 196 210 Phyto-Constituents in White Butterfly (Clerodendrum volubile P. Beauv) Leaf Extract Demonstrated Antioxidant Activity and Inhibited Key Enzymes linked to Hyperglycemia and Hypertension <p>Chlorogenic acid is bioactive phenolic compound found in medicinal and nutritional plants, linked to several therapeutic relevance, making it a highly commercialized phenolic compound responsible for the acceptability of the popular green tea. The aim of this research is to isolate chlorogenic acid from the white butterfly leaf and determine the antioxidant, hypoglycemic and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE-1) inhibiting potentials as a rider to further studies on the chlorogenic acid fraction. The chlorogenic acid isolate of white butterfly leaf (MLECS) was evaluated using biochemical analyses to determine its antioxidant properties, and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, and ACE-1 activity. The characterization of the polyphenolic compounds revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid as the most predominant compound, while quercetin, ellagic acid, salicylic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid are in high amount. The chromatogram of the chlorogenic acid fraction showed a single high peak and the purity level of the chlorogenic acid isolate. The chlorogenic acid isolate demonstrated antioxidant properties, inhibited α-glucosidase, α-amylase and ACE-1 activities in a concentration dependent manner with varying IC50 values. The white butterfly leaf is nutritional and therapeutic with respect to the starch hydrolysis and angiotensin-II anabolism. The predominance of chlorogenic acid could increase the economic value as a commercial source of chlorogenic acid.</p> MC Oladipo GO Oladipo EO Ibukun E Olorunfemi T Elijah-Afolabi DIA Ibiyemi OO Oyebiyi Copyright (c) 2024 MC Oladipo, GO Oladipo, EO Ibukun, E Olorunfemi, T Elijah-Afolabi, DIA Ibiyemi, OO Oyebiyi 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 186 195 Acceptability of Quilt Bedspread Made from Textile Scrap for Wealth Creation <p>Fabric waste in the garment manufacturing industry is one of the major issues facing manufacturing companies. The study examined the acceptability of quilt bedspread made from fabric scrap for wealth creation. Five research objectives were raised and two hypotheses were formulated. Score card and Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using frequency, percentages, mean, standard deviation, as T-test and ANOVA. The result revealed that majority of respondent were female and between age 21 and 25 years. 81.3% are students. respondent agreed that textile scrap quilt bedspread is better compare to contemporary type at (mean=8.29). The result shows that the TSQ is highly acceptable compare to CTQ (contemporary), language of design has influence and there is no significant difference in the perception of consumers on benefit of wealth creation in producing TSQ. It was concluded more of textile scrap should be retrieved from the landfill and textile industries, provide jobs for people, be financially rewarding by turning them into products for human consumption. It was recommended that prospective jobseeker should be encourage to more use of fabric scrap and designing with a sense of waste-awareness in producing a marketable product.</p> SO Abdulkadir IB Adeniran FI Titilope Copyright (c) 2024 SO Abdulkadir, IB Adeniran, FI Titilope 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 177 185 Subchronic Administration of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench L) leaf Reversed TBARS and Improved Functional Indices of Hepatic and Renal Functions in Male and Female Wistar Rats <p>This study was designed to evaluate the sub-chronic effects of <em>Abelmoschus esculentus</em> Moench L leaf on liver and kidney functions indices in male and female Wistar rats. Ethanolic leaf extract of Okra plant (ELEOP) was prepared and administered to male and female WIstar rats in the following doses-10, 100, 1000, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg BWT to initially observe within 24 hours the autonomic, behavioral and neurological changes, and more importantly the lethality of the extract (LD<sub>50</sub>), followed by sub-chronic evaluation within 28 days. The spectrophotometric procedures to determine the activities of ALT, ALP and AST was conducted to evaluate effects on the liver function. And the effect on kidney functions was evaluated by the determinations of the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in female and male rats. The effects of the treatment on the histology of the kidney and liver tissues were examined. Also determined were the extent of the inhibition of lipid peroxidation using concentration of MDA generated and degeneration of protein mass using assay of total protein determination in the liver and kidney. Ethanolic extract of Abelmoschus esculentus Moench L leaf had an LD50 of 1250 mg/Kg BWT in female Wistar rats and 2333.33 mg/Kg BWT in male Wistar rats. The quantitative evaluation of phytochemical composition of the leaf extract revealed caffeic acid as the most predominant, other phytochemicals included coumarin, quercetrin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and chlorogenic acid. These are phytochemicals of antioxidative importance but that are required endogenously in limited amounts.</p> FB Borokini GO Oladipo OY Komolafe MC Oladipo KF Ajongbolo Copyright (c) 2023 FB Borokini, GO Oladipo, OY KomolafeMC Oladipo, KF Ajongbolo 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 162 176 Comparative Analysis of Wireless Signal Propagation: RS and GIS Approach <p>Mobile network systems have become an integral part of daily life, facilitating communication and access to information. However, they are not without their challenges, particularly in the urban areas where signal strength can be affected by factors such as distance, vegetation, and building density. In this study, four different cellular networks signal strength was determined near their respective base stations in an ancient town of Osogbo, Nigeria exploring the free space method. The investigation of the signal strength was carried out mainly around built-up areas and vegetation/forest areas using a Blackberry 7290 wireless handheld receiver. The GPS and EM data obtained were fed into GIS to locate the cellular towers and to create the NDVI and digital elevation pattern map of the study area using the satellite images obtained for the study. Signal strength predicted by integration of Normalized Difference Vegetation (NDVI) methodology was compared with the four different cellular networks obtained. The comparative analysis reveals that values remains almost similar. The study found that RS and GIS approach can provide an effective means of analyzing cellular signal strength, useful for network planning and development in urban areas.</p> OB Daramola Copyright (c) 2023 OB Daramola 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 155 161 Antibacteria and Larvicidal Activities of Three Selected Botanicals <p>Diseases have been part of man existence since time immemorial. The present scenario for controlling these diseases is aimed at application of target, cost-effective and biodegradable phytochemical products. Therefore, in the present study the larvicidal activities of <em>Gliricidia sepium, Azadirachta indica </em>and<em> Hyptis suaveolens </em>leaf extracts against anopheles mosquito was studied. Qualitative phytochemical screening was carried out while standard scientific protocols with minor modifications were adopted for the larvicidal bioassay. The results show that the plants contain all the phytochemicals screened with tannins, flavonoid and saponin being the most abundant. Also, <em>A. indica</em> exhibited the highest larvicida activity of 65% followed by <em>G. sepium</em> (60 %) and the control (water) was found to have lowest larval mortality percentage of 0% after 24 hrs. The calculated LD<sub>50</sub> were 0.48 mg/ml, 0.65 mg/ml and 3.18 mg/ml for <em>G. sepium, A. indica </em>and<em> H. suaveolens</em> respectively. These suggest that <em>G. sepium </em>and<em> A. indica</em> may be exploited for the production of antibiotics and biolarvicides. However, further investigations are needed to identify the active ingredient (s) of the extract responsible for the observed bioactivity in this study.</p> A Ogundare AM Oyetayo Copyright (c) 2023 A Ogundare, AM Oyetayo 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 149 154 Biocontrol of Mosquitoes using Biocoil Produced from Cola millenii Extracts <p>Malaria is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity among various population in the tropics. Mosqiutoes are the vectors of this important disease. Presently, due to the resistance of insects to synthetic chemicals, there are ongoing efforts by researchers to develop biological substances for controlling the vectors in a bid to eradicate the disease. This research investigated <em>C. millenii </em>for its insecticidal potential against Anopheles mosquito. The leaf extracts of <em>C. millenii </em>were obtained using ethanol and n-Hexane. The extracts were screened for bioactive substances using standard analytical protocols. Biocoil was developed from the extract and the insecticidal efficacy was evaluated in the laboratory against larvae and adults of <em>Anopheles stephensi</em>. The qualitative results revealed that the plant contained alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids in varying amounts. Furthermore, the leaf extract had a significant (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05) lethal effect on mosquito larva at very low concentration recording a median lethal concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>) of 1.71 ppm in ethanol extract, while the pulp extract had LC<sub>50 </sub>of 792.34 ppm. The biocoil produced from the leaf extracts of the plant gave highly promising results in the control of the adult mosquito. These suggest that <em>Cola millenii</em> leaf contain bioactive substances that may be exploited in the control of mosquito.</p> BL Adewumi Copyright (c) 2023 BL Adewumi 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 132 138 Annona muricata (Soursop) Mitigated Testicular Toxicity and Prostatic Impairment in Testosterone-Propionate-Induced BPH in Male Rats <p>Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-associated prostate gland enlargement in men that can lead to urination difficulty. The exact etiology of BPH is unknown. Several unscientific reports with few documentations, supporting <em>Annona muricata</em> (soursop) fruit against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study aims to evaluate the mitigating mechanisms of <em>A. muricata</em> fruit phytochemicals on prostatic indices in BPH-induced male Wistar rats. The fruits of soursop were processed to obtain juice extract and lyophilized. A preliminary trial was conducted with six doses of the soursop fruit juice (10, 100, 1000, 1500, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg) to determine the LD<sub>50</sub>. The experiment involved forty male rats divided into five groups of eight animals each; groups 3 – 5 had 3mg/kg body weight of testosterone propionate (TP) intravenous for two days. Groups 3 and 4 had 1600 and 2900 mg/kg body weight of soursop fruit juice, while the effects finasteride was tested against BPH in the 5<sup>th</sup> group. The effects of the treatments were evaluated on body weight, prostatic weight, testicular weight, testosterone, DHT, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), testicular glycogen, testicular cholesterol, testicular zinc, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase concentration and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase levels. The soursop fruit juice significantly (p ≤0.05) decreased prostate weight and modulated indices of testicular functions positively. This study suggests that soursop fruit ameliorated prostatic hyperplasia in rats and may be considered as an affordable and non-invasive management option for benign prostatic hyperplasia in men.</p> OE Ibukun LO Ogunlade GO Oladipo Copyright (c) 2023 OE Ibukun, LO Ogunlade, GO Oladipo 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 1 11 Household Water Consumption Patterns in Ondo State, Nigeria <p>The study was conducted in Ondo State using multi-stage sampling procedure. Purposive sampling was used to select two communities while systematic random sampling was used to select 150 households with 75 respondents each from the two communities. Questionnaire and interview schedule were employed to elicit information on variables and data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Majority (66.0%) were married with mean household size of 5.5 ± 2.9 members. About (41.3%) had tertiary education, less than half (37.4%) of the respondents obtained their water from well and borehole. The respondents were faced with water constraints such as water inaccessibility (1.07) and high price of water (0.40). Furthermore, water conservation strategies of the respondents include washing of used plates once a day (1.29), washing of face and foot to reduce water used for bathing (0.81), repeated wearing of clothes more than twice (0.83) and skipping bathing or ration bathing at intervals during the week (0.47). Majority (56.0%) of the respondents had favourable attitude towards sustainable water management practices and they consumed 102 litres to 162 litres of water per day. The quantity of household daily consumption of water was between 148.8 ± 61.4 litres with drinking and clothes washing being the most important activities water are used for and are used more than twice a day. Government at all levels should ensure safe sources of water for both urban and rural households and also make them available and accessible for daily consumption.</p> EO Adelakun IB Adeniran Copyright (c) 2023 EO Adelakun, IB Adeniran 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 111 119 Effect of Automobile Paint Wastes Disposal on Soil Health Indices <p>In this investigation, the effects of paint waste disposal on the receiving soil in Owo Local Government Area, Ondo State. Samples of soil were collected from the painter workshops using soil auger and transported to the laboratory for further processing. The microbial population was determined using pour plate method and some biochemical tests while the physicochemical parameters of the soil samples were analyzed using standard methods. The total heterotrophic bacterial count of the paint contaminated soil in Owo ranged from 65.10 to 185.50 x 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/g. Sample from Owo 2 recorded the highest heavy metal resistant bacteria count (248.33 x 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/g). The organisms isolated from the soil samples were <em>Klebsiella</em> spp., <em>Escherichia</em> spp., <em>Staphylococcus</em> spp., <em>Proteus</em> spp., <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp., <em>Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus</em> spp., <em>Klebsiella</em> spp., <em>Bacillus</em> spp. and <em>Serratia</em> spp. The physicochemical analysis results revealed that Conductivity was significantly higher (P&lt;0.01) in contaminated soil samples (1.67, 1.82 and 1.27 mS/cm) than uncontaminated (0.21 mS/cm) soil sample. Also, heavy metals obtained from the experimental sites were found to be more than the control. Based on the results of this study, it is advised that paint effluents should be subjected to screening and possible remediation processes in order to avoid contamination of the environment with the toxic metals.</p> AM Oyetayo OC Arijeniwa AO Aladejimokun O Dada Copyright (c) 2023 AM Oyetayo, OC Arijeniwa, AO Aladejimokun, O Dada 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 104 110 The Impact of E-learning Technology on the Emerging and Re-emerging of Infectious Disease Outcomes in Tertiary Institutions in Ondo State, Nigeria <p>The lockdown measures to curtail the spread of corona virus pandemic brought major challenges to the educational system in Nigeria. It is therefore imperative that our educational system move with the pace at which education moves globally and technologically. Hence, this study examined the impact of e-learning technology on the emerging and re-emerging of infectious disease outcomes in Tertiary Institutions in Ondo State. The study equally finds out the level of utilization of ICT during the outbreak of infectious disease in tertiary institutions. The study adopted a descriptive survey design in which two research questions were posed. The population of the study was 10,000 while the sample size of 1000 was selected randomly out of the four private and public tertiary institutions Area of Ondo state. Four-point scale questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. The instrument was adequately validated with its reliability established using test retest. Data collected were analyzed using mean score. Base on the data collected and carefully analyzed, the result revealed that there was significant impact of e-learning technology on the emerging and re-emerging of infectious disease outcomes in Tertiary Institutions. Based on these findings; it was recommended that the government must further create enabling environment and investment in ICT centers for staffs and students to achieve excellence in teaching and learning process using technological tools. The educational system must be restructured as to accommodate e-learning technology, update the teachers and bridge the learning gap during an outbreak of disease.</p> O Ebun IP Ige Copyright (c) 2023 O Ebun, IP Ige 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 94 103 Investigation of the Quality of Commercial Garri Sold in Major Markets in Ibadan Metropolis <p>This research aims to investigate the presence of cyanide in commercial garri sold in major markets in Ibadan metropolis. Two hundred (200) garri sample were collected from about ten (10) LGAs within Ibadan Metropolis and their environs. The higher concentration of HCN acid was 0.00097±3.77mg/kg from Oja-oba market in Ibadan south-west LGA while the lowest concentration of 0.00067±2.88mg/kg was detected from sample still from Oja-oba market in Ibadan south-west LGA. High concentration of HCN acid 0.00095±3.3mg/kg was detected from Olomi market in Ibadan north-east LGA, same concentration 0.00096±3.31mg/kg also detected from sample from Apata market in Ibadan south-east LGA. HCN acid concentration of 0.00095±2.88mg/kg was detected from garri sample from Apata market, Oje market, Mokola market, Bodija market and Beere market. High concentration of HCN acid i.e 0.00094±8.25mg/kg was found in samples from Mokola market and Beere market in Ibadan north LGA. High concentrations of 0.00093±5.22mg/kg was detected in garri samples from Oje market, Dugbe market, Olomi market, Sasa market, Omii market, Aleshinloye market, Iwo road market, Bodija market, Gbaji market, Bashorun market and Beere market in Ibadan south west LGA. HCN acid concentration of 0.00092±4.5mg/kg was detected in garri sample from Bode market, Olomi market, Oke-Ado market, Molete market, Gbaremu market, Aleshinloye market, and Beere market. The HCN acid concentration in all the two hundred (200) garri samples were below 10mg/kg, the Maximum Permissible Level (MPL) recommended by WHO/FAO (2012), USEPA (2013) and EU (2015). Therefore, the entire sample investigated were recommended for public consumption.</p> OD Ogundele MB Okunade OD Oyinloye OI Ajibade Copyright (c) 2023 OD Ogundele, MB Okunade, OD Oyinloye, OI Ajibade 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 80 93 Isolation, Identification and Antibiogram of Bacterial Pathogens Gotten from Cow Meat Obtained from Different Market Sources <p>Food safety is of increasing concern among consumers of meat especially with reference to food borne microbes. In Nigeria, the consumption and sales of meat products are increasing. The aim of this work was to determine the microbial loads cow meat obtained from different market sources and antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Cow meat samples were randomly collected from local markets in five (5) different LGA in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and were subjected to microbial isolation and identification procedures using the serial dilution and pour plate methods and were identified using the colonial, microscopic, cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using the Kirby- Bauer disk diffusion method.&nbsp; Results obtained revealed that the predominant bacterial pathogen isolated was <em>Escherichia coli</em> followed by <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella</em> spp<em>, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas </em>spp<em>, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri.</em> <em>S. aureus </em>and <em>Salmonella </em>spp were resistant to 80 % of all the antibiotics<em>. C. jejuni, </em>and <em>S. flexneri</em> showed resistance to 60% of the antibiotics while <em>C. perfringes</em> and <em>P. aeruginosa</em> showed resistance to 50 % of the antibiotics whereas, <em>E.coli</em> and <em>Aeromonas</em> spp. showed resistance of 40%. The lowest resistance of 30 % was recorded in <em>Y. enterocolitica. </em>The multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) of the isolates recovered in the present study indicates multidrug resistance in nature. The result of the study showed contamination of cow meat probably due to poor sanitary environment and dirty places during slaughtering, transportation and processing.</p> OT Jolapamo OO Osatoyinbo Copyright (c) 2023 OT Jolapamo, OO Osatoyinbo 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 72 79 Resistance Evaluation, Gene Sequence and Plasmid Profile of Salmonella typhi Isolated from Human Anal Swab <p>Antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae are of great global concern. <em>Salmonella</em> Sp. is widespread in the environment, but the main reservoir is the intestinal tract of livestock animals and particularly pig, poultry, and cattle and can be transmitted to humans through the food chain. Ten rectal swab samples were collected from five (5) male and five (5) females.&nbsp; One organism of clinical importance amongst the isolates was identified as <em>Salmonella typhi</em> through colonial, morphological and biochemical tests carried out following standard procedures. The identified isolate was investigated for its antibiotic resistance profile, Multiple Antibiotic Resistance index (MARi), pathogenicity status and its resistance genes were determined through molecular means using plasmid amplification and primers. Primers used include. <em>ermB, BlaTem, qnrB</em> genes. Result obtained showed <em>Salmonella typhi</em> to have α heamolysis. It was sensitive to 25% of the tested antibiotics, especially to all classes of Cephalosporin used. The Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARi) was 0.66. The plasmid profiling revealed<em> Salmonella</em> to have low molecular weight plasmid and the molecular investigation using gene primers <em>ermB,&nbsp; BlaTem</em>,&nbsp; and&nbsp; <em>qnrB</em> genes showed <em>Salmonella typhi</em> to have resistance genes for macrolides (<em>ermB </em>gene) and betalactam (<em>BlaTem</em>) but no resistance gene quinolones (qnrB gene). The high antibiotic resistance of <em>Salmonella typhi</em> to antibiotics is a cause for concern and alternative means of intervention into the treatment of Salmonella associated infection should be investigated as a matter of urgency. Identifying and monitoring resistance in Salmonella isolates from human-related environments are of clinical and epidemiological significance in battling antimicrobial resistance.</p> AO Daniels GV Iluyemi Copyright (c) 2023 AO Daniels, GV Iluyemi 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 59 64 Comparative Study of Nutritional Profile of Wild and Domesticated Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) <p>This study was carried out to determine the nutritional profile of wild and domesticated oyster mushroom. The wild mushroom was collected from forests around Owo and identified while the domesticated sample was grown on wood substrate prepared in the laboratory. Thereafter, the proximate composition and the mineral content were determined using standard techniques. The result of the proximate composition of the wild and domesticated <em>P. ostreatus</em> mushroom revealed that the moisture content and the Nitrogen free extract of the wild (8.96 % and 52.50 %) and the domesticated (8.59 % and 52.16%) mushrooms were comparable whereas, crude protein (32.11 %) and crude fibre (13.51 %) were significantly higher in the wild type than the domesticated samples. Also, lipids (0.42 %) and ash content (4.17 %) were significantly higher in the domesticated sample compared with the wild type. In the mineral content assay, nitrogen was found higher in the wild mushroom than the domesticated sample while potassium, calcium and magnesium were found to be higher in the domesticated samples than the wild types. Only phosphorus was found in comparable amount in both the wild and domesticated type of the mushrooms. Overall, there appears to be no significant (p&lt;0.05) differences in the nutritional content of both the domesticated and wild-collected test mushroom.</p> AR Jose AM Oyetayo Copyright (c) 2023 AR Jose, AM Oyetayo 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 52 58 Design and Construction of a Tray Dryer for Groundnut Drying <p>Drying is one of the oldest method of preserving food. Drying implies the removal of water from a product to an acceptance level for marketing, storage or for further processing. The numerous ways of usage of groundnut and its products has led to increase in its demand. However, the traditional method of drying involving exposing the groundnut seeds to sunlight and constantly spreading it to enhance uniform drying is associated with drudgery, unhygienic, time consuming, ineffective and results into high percentage seed losses. A tray dryer was constructed with the aim of improving on the traditional methods commonly used in Nigeria. The dryer can be used to measure drying rates of different varieties of groundnut at different initial moisture contents, drying air temperatures, drying air velocities of grain beds. The effects of different drying temperature, air velocity, can be investigated with the dryer. The dryer shows drying efficiency ranging from 77.54% to 79.32%. Also, the dryer is capable of reducing the moisture content of groundnut seeds of different varieties from 20% to average moisture content of 9% within average time of 7hrs.</p> OS Lawson LAS Agbetoye OO Olabinjo OG Olajide Copyright (c) 2023 OS Lawson, LAS Agbetoye, OO Olabinjo, OG Olajide 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 43 51 Assessment of Some Quality Identities of Crude and Processed Oils Extracted From Snake Tomato (Trichosanthes Cucumerina) Seeds. <p>Analysis of crude and processed oil extracted from Snake tomato (<em>Trichosanthes cucumerina)</em> seeds were carried out to establish the effect of processing on identity and quality characteristics of the oils. The crude oil was subjected to refining processes: Degumming, Neutralization and bleaching. There was no remarkable difference in the specific gravity, refractive index and moisture content of the crude and processed oils. However, there exists slight increase in Smoke point (<sup>0</sup>C): (82.00±0.01 - 87.00±0.33), Flash point (<sup>0</sup>C): (236.00±1.01 - 245.00±1.30), Fire point (<sup>0</sup>C): (285.00±2.41 - 296.00±1.58) and Iodine value (g/100g): (83.26±2.01 - 89.30±2.50) of the oil samples. The qualities of the oils improved by showing gradual decrease in Colour (Lovibond unit): (10.00 - 4.00), Free fatty acid (% Linolenic): (1.21±0.01 - 0.64±0.01), Acid value (mgKOH/g): (2.43±0.04 - 1.26±0.21), Peroxide value (meq peroxide/Kg) :(2.08±0.10 - 0.61±0.01), Saponification value (mgKOH/g Oil): (281.27±2.18 - 277.98±1.90) and increase in the values of Linoleic acid (38.10 – 41.98%), Oleic acid (35.74 – 37.50%), Palmitic&nbsp; (11.68 – 12.80%) and Stearic acid(3.79 – 4.66%) as the crude oil was processed to bleached oil. The oil's high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, high iodine value, and low free fatty acid content are all attributes that qualify the oil to be safe for consumption. The oil's quality will be further enhanced if it is processed to the deodorization.</p> JO Alademeyin AO Jide Copyright (c) 2023 JO Alademeyin, AO Jide 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 31 42 Antioxidative Effects of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batata) Tuber Peels and Leaves on Crude Groundnut Oil <p>The aim of the research is to examine antioxidative effects of solvent extracts of potato leaves and tuber peels on groundnut oil stored under accelerated conditions. Sweet potato tuber peels (orange specie) and leaves were obtained, washed, dried, ground, and sieved with 40 mm mech and separately extracted with three different solvents (acetone, ethanol, ethyl acetate) for 72 hours. The efficiency of each solvent was determined as percent extractive value. The first two highest solvent extracts for potato peels and leaves were added as additives to the crude groundnut oil (CGO) at varying proportions (200 - 1000 ppm). A sample of oil containing no additives and sample with butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT 200 ppm) were set aside for comparison. The progression of oxidation was followed by measuring the free fatty acid (FFA), acid value (AV) and peroxide value (PV) of the oils fortnightly for a period of eight weeks. Ethanol had the highest extractive values of 4.1667 &nbsp;and 6.4667 &nbsp;for leaves and peels respectively. The FFA, AV, and PV of the CGO with plant extracts were 1.952, 3.885 and 0.613 while CGO with BHT were 2.14, 4.476, and 0.736 respectively at P . This study showed that potato tuber peels and leaves had good antioxidant potential and therefore recommended to be utilized in our edible oil industries as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants.</p> JO Arawande IA Adenegan Copyright (c) 2023 JO Arawande, IA Adenegan 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 24 30 Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Gums from the Bark of Terminalia mantaly and Khaya senegalensis <p>This study investigates the physicochemical, mineral, proximate, FTIR, and SEM analysis of the gums obtained from the bark of <em>Terminalia mantaly </em>and <em>Khaya senegalensis</em>. The physicochemical analysis for <em>Terminalia mantaly</em> gum (TMG) gave values of 30.76 %, 4.50, 0.10 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, 0.142 mg/cm<sup>3</sup>, 8.78 %, and 10.55 % for percentage yield, pH, bulk density, tapped density, swelling index and water absorption capacity respectively while 29.50 %, 4.80, 0.12 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, 0.105 mg/cm<sup>3</sup>, 8.45 %, and 10.27 % for percentage yield, pH, bulk density, tapped density, swelling index and water absorption capacity respectively were recorded for <em>Khaya senegalensis</em> gum (KSG). The results of the proximate analysis showed that TMG had a higher percentage of moisture content, crude fat and ash content than KSG, and KSG had a higher percentage of crude fibre, crude protein, and carbohydrate content than TMG. Elemental analysis for <em>Terminalia mantaly</em> gum (TMG) gave values of 58.50 mg/kg, 42.0 mg/kg, 11.30 mg/kg, 38.50 mg/kg, 2.58 mg/kg, 1.53 mg/kg, and 0.33 mg/kg for potassium, magnesium, sodium, calcium, zinc, iron, and copper respectively while 58.00 mg/kg, 41.60 mg/kg, 39.00 mg/kg, 10.50 mg/kg, 1.50 mg/kg, 2.34 mg/kg, and 0.30 mg/kg for potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, zinc, and copper respectively were recorded for <em>Khaya senegalensis</em> gum (KSG). The results show no toxicity and high nutritional and mineral value of the gums. Thus, they are safe to be used in the pharmaceutical and food industries.</p> DA Oyegoke OD Ogundele AN Aruwaji FO Fasuyi Copyright (c) 2023 DA Oyegoke, OD Ogundele, AN Aruwaji, FO Fasuyi 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 12 23 Lithium inhibits GSK-3 through disruption of Striatal β-Arrestin, PP2A, and Akt Signaling <p>β-Arrestin, PP2A, and Akt form a signaling complex that affects the activation of GSK-3. GSK-3 affects the pathway leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Lithium is a known mood stabilizer which exhibits a direct or indirect inhibition of GSK-3. GSK-3 is the link between neurodegeneration and the mitigating potential of lithium via the direct and indirect inhibition of this enzyme. This review reveals the mechanisms associated with lithium neuroprotection and the synergies between β-arrestin, PP2A, AKT, and GSK-3, the limiting effects on the progression of neurodegeneration.</p> GO Oladipo MC Oladipo T Olusanya OE Ibukun OA Akinola Copyright (c) 2023 GO Oladipo, MC Oladipo, T Olusanya, OE Ibukun, OA Akinola 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 139 148 Language Communication in the 21st Century; Integrating ICT Based Language Teaching in Nigeria, Prospects and Challenges: Alliance Française De Jos and Achievers University Owo. <p>This paper seeks to evaluate the important role ICT has played in the teaching and learning of French language in Alliance Française de Jos and Achievers University Owo. It points out that language teaching has evolved and gained tremendous growth thanks to recent developments over the years through the use of ICT based language teaching technologies. It posits that while this growth is particularly important and commendable, there have been great challenges in the areas of adaptation, adoption and implementation based on sociocultural and economic factors. Some of these economic factors range from poor power supply to erratic internet connections etc. It also calls on government to intensify efforts in providing basic teaching and social amenities in schools for better teaching and learning environments.</p> PI Ohanma Copyright (c) 2023 PI Ohanma 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 5 2 65 71