Lithium inhibits GSK-3 through disruption of Striatal β-Arrestin, PP2A, and Akt Signaling
Keywords:β-Arrestin, Lithium, GSK-3, PP2A, Neuroprotection
β-Arrestin, PP2A, and Akt form a signaling complex that affects the activation of GSK-3. GSK-3 affects the pathway leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Lithium is a known mood stabilizer which exhibits a direct or indirect inhibition of GSK-3. GSK-3 is the link between neurodegeneration and the mitigating potential of lithium via the direct and indirect inhibition of this enzyme. This review reveals the mechanisms associated with lithium neuroprotection and the synergies between β-arrestin, PP2A, AKT, and GSK-3, the limiting effects on the progression of neurodegeneration.